Back When Heroes Were Role Models in Moderation and in Piety
For the scope of this paper, I will not cover the myriad of characteristics that seem to vary across the ages. Nor will I discuss the types of physical characteristics that seem to abide across the ages, such as of physical (and often godly) beauty, or of physical strength (as demonstrated through expertise in military conquest). Instead, I will focus on two kinds of virtues; moderation and piety, as they appear across antiquity and the medieval ages. To demonstrate the breadth of these virtues across this span of time, I will demonstrate how Socrates, Aeneas, and Charlemagne, the heroes at the center of the Apology (written c. 360 BCE), the Aeneid (written 29-19 BCE), and the Two Lives of Charlemagne (written c. 836 CE and c. 885 CE), each display moderation in abstaining from vice, and piety in deferring to the will of the gods.
2 Poems written for the North American Review written by Daniel Koenigsberg.